Recent heat-related events, for example, heatwaves, have been made more frequent or intense due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in most land regions and the frequency and intensity of drought has increased in Amazonia, north-eastern Brazil, the Mediterranean, Patagonia, most of Africa and north-eastern China (medium confidence). Such consequences would jeopardise societies’ capacity to achieve many Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that depend on land (high confidence). The climate change mitigation potential for bioenergy and BECCS is large (up to 11 GtCO2 yr–1); however, the effects of bioenergy production on land degradation, food insecurity, water scarcity, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other environmental goals are scale- and context-specific (high confidence). {3.1.4, 3.4.1, 3.5.2, 3.7.3}, Increasing human pressures on land, combined with climate change, will reduce the resilience of dryland populations and constrain their adaptive capacities (medium confidence). {2.3}, The total net land-atmosphere flux of CO2 on both managed and unmanaged lands very likely provided a global net removal from 2007 to 2016 according to models (-6.0 ± 3.7 CO2 yr–1,  likely range). {5.2.2}, Food security will be increasingly affected by projected future climate change (high confidence). Measures to avoid, reduce and reverse land degradation are available but economic, political, institutional, legal and socio-cultural barriers, including lack of access to resources and knowledge, restrict their uptake (very high confidence). The greenhouse gas emissions scenarios described in the Report have been used to make projections of possible future climate change. This results from a combination of direct (i.e., land use and management, forest conservation and expansion) and indirect factors (i.e., CO2 fertilisation, extended growing season, global warming, nitrogen deposition, increase of diffuse radiation) linked to human activities (high confidence). Projected increases in temperature and the severity of drought events across some dryland areas can increase chances of wildfire occurrence (medium confidence). {3.2.1, 3.6.2, 3.6.3, Cross-Chapter Box 5 in this chapter}, Land degradation affects people and ecosystems throughout the planet and is both affected by climate change and contributes to it. {,,;;;;; Figure 7.1}, These changes result in compound risks to food systems, human and ecosystem health, livelihoods, the viability of infrastructure, and the value of land (high confidence). The extent of degraded and marginal lands suitable for dedicated biomass production is highly uncertain and cannot be established without due consideration of current land use and land tenure. For adaptation, resilience to increasing extreme events can be accomplished through risk sharing and transfer mechanisms such as insurance markets and index-based weather insurance (high confidence).Publichealthpoliciestoimprovenutrition–suchasschool procurement, health insurance incentives, and awareness-raising campaigns – can potentially change demand, reduce healthcare costs, and contribute to lower GHG emissions (limited evidence, high agreement). {Cross-Chapter Box 9 in Chapters 6 and 7, 7.2.2, 7.3.2, Table 7.1, Figure 7.2}, Land-based adaptation and mitigation responses pose risks associated with the effectiveness and potential adverse side-effects of measures chosen (medium confidence). The decrease in the emissions of BVOC resulting from the historical conversion of forests to cropland has resulted in a positive radiative forcing through direct and indirect aerosol effects, a negative radiative forcing through the reduction in the atmospheric lifetime of methane and it has contributed to increased ozone concentrations in different regions (low confidence). Some response options, for example, BECCS, have only been implemented at small-scale demonstration facilities; challenges exist with upscaling these options to the levels discussed in this Chapter (medium confidence). Such pathways that minimise land use for bioenergy and BECCS are characterised by rapid and early reduction of GHG emissions in all sectors, as well as earlier CDR in through afforestation. {2.5.2, 2.5.3}, According to model-based studies, changes in local land cover or available water from irrigation will affect climate in regions as far as few hundreds of kilometres downwind (high confidence). {3.7.5, 7.2.2, 7.3.4, 7.5.5, 7.5.6, Table 7.1, Cross-Chapter Box 9 in Chapters 6 and 7, Cross-Chapter Box 12 in Chapter 7}, Delaying deep mitigation in other sectors and shifting the burden to the land sector, increases the risk associated with adverse effects on food security and ecosystem services (high confidence). Residual risks can emerge from the inability of SLM measures to fully compensate for yield losses due to climate change impacts. The Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) of the IPCC Working Group III provides an assessment and thorough analysis of renewable energy technologies and their current and potential role in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. {4.2.2, 4.3, 4.5.4, 4.6}, Large-scale implementation of dedicated biomass production for bioenergy increases competition for land with potentially serious consequences for food security and land degradation (high confidence). AFOLU results in both emissions and removals of CO2, CH4 and N2O to and from the atmosphere (high confidence). {5.5, 5.6, 5.7}, For adaptation and mitigation throughout the food system, enabling conditions need to be created through policies, markets, institutions, and governance (high confidence). There are a variety of response options available at different scales that could form portfolios of measures applied by different stakeholders – from farm to international scales. 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