We generally strive to present a positive image to gain others’ esteem and have positive relations with them (to have them adopt our goals): we have a “goal of image” – the goal of having others make up an image of us – and a “goal of esteem” (positive image). 4, 460–476. T hey feel offended if t heir driving is in any way criticised as it goes against their self-image. Mead, G. H. (1934). of the proposed "Directive on the Patentability of Computer-Implemented Inventions". prophet being depicted are kindly requested to ignore the. Furthermore, the external conditions taken as responsible correlate with fear, possibly because they become less controllable by participants, hence potentially threatening (Table 3). Coming to BENEVOLENCE, we are offended by attributions of immorality, of cheating or unreliability, of negligence or non-compliance with our duty, and finally of selfishness. But even more offensive it is targeting the functional properties of a person’s physical arrangement: the stygma of handicap makes the person feel humiliated, and when mentioned or alluded to it is offensive, even, surprisingly, when the intention of B is not to offend but, for instance, rather to help (pity is humiliating). Drop your ego or desire to direct, control, or change other’s beliefs. In social psychology research, the feeling of offense has been viewed so far as typically triggered by a blow to a person’s honor, hence to his/her public “face”; yet this painful emotion, beside nicking the reputation and self-concept of the offended person, is often felt also in interpersonal relationships, that it finally may seriously disrupt. Unlike previous works mainly viewing offense as a blow to a person’s honor and public image, our study has shown that people feel offended more in personal than in public relationships, and that its causes are not only insult or criticism, but also the other’s arrogance or betrayal, carelessness, or distrust, since they imply offensive evaluations ranging from ignorance to lack of skill and stupidity, to immorality or cheating, inferiority, irrelevance, ugliness, or handicap. hoped that my remarks had not offended her outrage implies offending beyond endurance and calling forth extreme feelings. doi: 10.1177/0146167299025007006. Concerning DOMINANCE, the other’s carelessness is offensive since it tells they consider us irrelevant. [Idiom] to feel offended: sich beleidigt fühlen: to feel offended: sich gekränkt fühlen If system A lacks capacities or resources to achieve a goal g, while another Agent B is endowed with them, A depends on B and can achieve g only if B adopts A’s goal g, i.e., if B puts one’s actions and resources to the service of A’s goal. The paper finally highlights that high self-esteem may protect a person against the feeling of offense and the constellation of negative emotions triggered by it. Such analysis can be linked to well-known studies stating how women have a lower self-esteem than men (Baumeister et al., 2003), so we could expect persons with low-self-esteem to live offenses with more negative low arousal emotions (sadness and bitterness), internal attributions, and rumination (sense of guilt and rancor) than people with high self-esteem. Learn more. The ingredients of feeling offended are quite clearly phrased in participants’ definitions. De Carolis, M. de Gemmis, A. Odiæ, and A. Košir (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 13–34. Yet sometimes we feel offended also for more subtle and implicit causes: a simple lack of attention on the part of the other, or his refusal of our offer of help; or even an altruistic behavior by him, which makes us feel helpless and hence humiliates us. (I did not feel offended) due to my different way of acting and thinking. (a) No relevance of the flaw for A (no value sharing), B’s criterion of evaluation is not considered important by A. A Theory of Freedom and Control. Participants with high self-esteem express lower levels of negative low arousal emotions when feeling offended: lower sadness, shame, bitterness, rancor, and sense of guilt (ANOVA significant p < 0.05; Table 11); differently, people with low self-esteem feel higher levels of negative low arousal emotions, but also fear, showing that their negative global evaluation leads them to experience lack of internal resources to face the received offense (Table 11). doi: 10.1037/pspp0000078. Further offensive attacks to our DOMINANCE are when others consider us inferior. Actually, some circularity affects these studies, since self-esteem is defined as what is affected by offenses. An important subset of emotions is “social emotions” (D’Errico and Poggi, 2016): those felt toward another person – like envy or compassion – or importantly connected to our relationships with others. , B., and brehm, S. S., and links to well-being of that... 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